Who is Abbas II


Who is Abbas II

ABBAS II (1874-1944), was the last khedive of Egypt, and was deposed by the British. Also called Abbas Hilmi Pasha, he was a descendant of Mohammed Ali. He was educated in Vienna and succeeded his father, Mohammed Tewfik Pasha, as khedive of Egypt on Jan. 8, 1892.

Abbas II

Although nominally under Turkish suzerainty, Egypt had been occupied by Britain since 1882. The pro-Turkish Abbas was suspicious of British policy in Egypt. He resented the control exercised by the British consuls general, including Lord Cromer and Lord Kitchener, with whom he often came into conflict.

At the outbreak of World War I, Abbas was in Constantinople (now istanbul) as a guest of the sultan of Turkey. He was recovering from wounds inflicted several months before by a would be assassin. After Britain declared war on Turkey on Nov. 5, 1914, Abbas, who remained in Constantinople, was suspected of plotting against the British. On December 18, Britain made Egypt a British protectorate and terminated Turkish suzerainty. The following day Abbas was deposed in favor of his uncle Hussein Kamil, the eldest living descendant of Mohammed Ali. The title of khedive was abolished for that of sultan, which was replaced by the title of king in 1922.

During the war, Abbas lived in Constantinople and Vienna. After the war he remained in exile, chiefly in Switzerland. When Egypt became independent in 1922, his property was liquidated, and he was forbidden to enter Egypt. He was excluded from succession to the throne, although the rights of his direct male descendants were not affected. He published A Feıv Words on the Anglo-Egyptian Settlement in 1930. Abbas died in Geneva, Switzerland, on Dec. 21, 1944.

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