YOGURT, (also Yoghurt or Yoghourt or Yoğurt), a fermented, slightly acid, semisolid cultured milk food that derives its modern vogue from the Balkans, where it has long been popular. Except for its refreshing taste and wholesomeness as a food, no special virtues were claimed for it until early in the 20th century, when the bacteriologist filie Metchnikoff, who shared a Nobel Prize in 1908, concluded from his studies on the effect of lactic acid bacteria of the digestive tract that yoğurt arrests intestinal putrefaction and thus might be beneficial. intestinal antibiotic properties are attributed to yoğurt which tend to restore the normal intestinal equilibrium.
In western Europe and the United States, where the food has become increasingly popular, yogurt is made almost exclusively from fresh, homogenized, pasteurized cow’s milk, to which are added strong yoğurt cultures, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The milk is bottled and ferments into yoğurt inside the bottle, the culturing process taking place in temperature-controlled incubators.
Yoğurt has a custardlike consistency and is eaten with a spoon. It contains a higher percent-age of lactic acid than other fermented milks, and it is rich in vitamin B complex.
Fresh yoğurt has a tangy, keen, and refreshing taste, somewhat like buttermilk, but neither but-termilk nor sour cream contains the specific culture found in yoğurt. In addition to plain yoğurt, the produet is now available sweetened in several flavors and also with preserves.
In the Balkans and the Middle East yoğurt is also used in food preparation, but in the United States it is usually eaten as a dessert or snack, with or without fruits or jams. Plain yoğurt contains no more calories than milk, and since it is more easily digested than milk, it is an excellent food for people with weak digestions, and also for the aged.
Yogurt is a gift of Turks to the world. Yoghurt word in ancient Turkish 8th century. , it is reported that in the works of Divan-ı Lügatüt Türk and Yusuf Has Hacib written by Kaşgarlı Mahmut in the 10th century Kutadgu Bilig yoghurt word is used in today’s meaning.