Examples of Commensalism
Some living beings establish symbiotic relationships among themselves to obtain some benefit. Commensalism occurs when a living being obtains benefits from another while the other is not benefited or harmed. Example: Birds that build their nests in a tree.
That is, a species is benefited by something that does not commit the other.
Relations between species
Commensalism is not the most frequent among the interactions that occur between living beings. In truth, the most expected is that the relationship is parasitic or predation, in which one species benefits and the other is harmed.
However, there are times when the action of one species (always beneficial for itself) does not harm another species, or even benefits it: this is the case of mutualism.
Commensalism: Animals Scavengers
The first use of the commensalism term has to do with the case of scavenger animals, that is, those that feed on other dead species.
It must be said that the consideration is at least debatable, since it is somewhat pretentious to consider that a dead species participates without taking any advantage or any harm from a relationship in which another feeds on its body: however, the notion is used of commensalism for these cases.
Types of commensalism
By extension, the idea of commensalism covered other cases, giving rise to a classification that established three types of commensalism: foresis, teneilinismo and metabiosis:
Foresis: A smaller species takes advantage of the larger one to transport it, not implying any problem to it. Sometimes you will not even realize that you are transporting.
Tenderness: One species takes refuge inside or on top of the other to protect itself.
Metabiosis: A species takes advantage of some waste substance from another to achieve a different purpose: here we would find scavengers.
Examples of commensalism
***The birds that are located in a tree, building nests between branches and foliage or sleeping between the branches.
***Certain plants can disperse their seeds once one or several colonies of ants ravaged an area of the forest, eliminating the other plants.
***The woodpecker, which bores certain trees to build its nest there.
***The flies that place their eggs on the carcasses of other animals, so that their larvae can feed.
***Certain kinds of insects that inhabit the burrows of field mice, feeding on roots that protrude from the burrow’s roof.
***Several kinds of apes use the branches and crowns of trees as habitat and food source.
***Crabs that use snail shells as protection and house.
***The construction of honeycombs in the trees.
***When a furry animal, when walking through a field, drag seeds of plants attached to their hair.
***Metanotrophic bacteria that consume methane from methanogenic archaea.
***The herons that feed near flocks of ungulates, because these disperse the insects on which they feed.
***The anemones that use some of the mussel shells, without causing any damage to them.
***The remoras that like means of transport to the sharks, without causing them some damage.
***The dung beetles that take advantage of the feces of other animals for which they are nothing more than a discard.