Examples and Definition of Parasitism
Parasitism is directly associated with a particular relationship, the relationship established between two organisms, in which one lives at the expense of the other. The two necessary protagonists of the relationship of parasitism are the one that is incorporated into the alien medium (the parasite) and the one that provides the means for the action of the parasite (called host).
The relationship can occur in many ways, and the host can be more or less harmed by the parasite that has some benefit from the reaction. Because of the characteristics of the relationship of parasitism is that often the term is extrapolated and it is taken to other meanings, including the practices of human beings in which some people take advantage of others.
The parasite, on occasion, lives inside its host. The central feature of this type of parasitism is that the host has certain antibodies, which are related to the parasite usually composed of numerous micro parasites.
On the other hand, those that do not get to be inside the other specimen may be ectoparasites, where the most typical case may be that of eggs laid in a nest that is not proper. The host organisms usually develop defense mechanisms that limit the action of the parasites, as it happens with the plants that produce toxins seeking to dissuade the fungi.
On the other hand, it is also common for a co-evolution process to occur whereby the two species evolve to achieve their objective: the hosts seek to avoid being the target of the parasites, while the parasites evolve to continue infecting the hosts .
Generally, when agents become parasites, they progressively lose physiological or metabolic functions. The extraction of host molecules means that it is not necessary to synthesize their own, as is the case with viruses that are necessarily cases of parasitism. It is usual that parasitism is not obvious to the naked eye, but from the moment in which the host suffers the ravages caused by the parasite, usually malnutrition or infections.
A situation that frequently occurs is what is called hyperparasitism. This is what happens when a parasite lives from another parasite: the parasitic chains that in these cases are formed are those that generate biological competence and antibiosis, while being one of the bases for the biological control of diseases and pests Of crops.
Examples of parasitism
The following cases constitute parasitism, according to the definition seen:
***Fleas: Parasites that live on the skin of animals, cause viruses and hide in the fur.
***Termites: Insects that parasitize trees, destroying them almost completely.
***Saculina: From the barnacle family. When he finds a crab, he injects the soft part of his body there, making it sterile.
***Leeches: They feed on the blood of other animals.
***Earthworms: Common in animals and man, they feed by removing nutrients and invading other organs.
***Ticks: External parasites that feed on the blood of guests, infecting diseases such as typhus.
***Emerald wasp of cockroaches: Parasite that pricks cockroaches with its sting. It inoculates the eggs, and when the larvae are born, they feed on the non-vital tissues of the cockroach.
***Amebas: Parasites from the intestines of animals and humans, causing malnutrition and diseases.
***Guinea Worm: Live in the microscopic fleas of river water. Drinking that kind of water makes it possible for the worm to enter the body, which forms blisters on the skin and produces a burning sensation.
***Viruses: Parasites that act on plants and animals, causing many diseases.
***Helmint: Long-bodied animal species that infect the organism of other species.
***Protozoa: Simple animals formed by a cell, many are parasites of plants and animals. They produce diseases such as Chagas or trichomoniasis.
***Rhodophytes: Red algae, often parasites of other rhodiophytes. It injects its cell nuclei into host cells, producing sex cells of the parasitic genome.
***Mites: tiny parasites that inhabit human skin, feeding on secretions.
***Sack of green bands: Grows inside the snail, which returns to its more daring behavior looking for places exposed to the sight of all. The parasite lives in the digestive system of those who eat the snail, reproducing and releasing eggs in their feces, usually birds.