Definitions for Common Labor Terms

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The following terms dealing with labor, labormanagement relations, and particularly with wages were adapted, for the most part, from Standard glossaries. While many of the terms have more general use, their labor connotation is here given. As far as possible, terms not in current use have been omitted.

Absenteeism.—The failure of workers to report for work, for whatever cause.

Accessions.—New hires and rehires by individual employers, one of the two majör trends in labor ttırnover. Statistically, the total number of permanent and temporary additions to the employment roll, including both new and rehired employees.

AcrosstheBoard increase.—A general wage increase affecting ali or most of the employees of a plant, company, or industry simultaneously. May be either a uniform percentage or centsperhour.

Allowed Time.—Total time allowed or set as Standard to complete a task or element of a task under wage incentive systems. Also? time permitted workers for care of tools, rest perıods, or for other purposes. Both are combined in establishing piece rates or production bonuses.

Annual Wage or Employment Guarantee.—An arrangement under which an employer guarantees some or ali of his workers a minimum amount of wages or employment during a year.

Apprentice Rate.—Schedule of wage rates for workers being given formal apprenticeship training for a skilled job. Usually established in a series of steps leading to the journeyman rate at the end of the term of apprenticeship.

Apprenticeship.—Formal onthejob and classroom training program under joint employer and union auspices and under public supervision, whereby “indentured” young workers learn a skilled trade during a stated period of time and for which they receive wages according to a set apprentice rate.

Assessment.—A charge levied by a union on each member for a purpose not covered by. regular union dues; may be either onetime or periodic charges.

Automatic Progression.—Policy whereby wage rates of workers on jobs with established rate ranges are increased automatically and at set time intervals. Also refers to automatic periodic wage advances for trainees and apprentices.

Average StrâightTime Hourly Earnings.—Average wages earned per hour, excluding premium overtime payments and shift differentials.

Back Pay.—Wages which must be paid to an employee who has been discharged either in violation of a law or against the terms of a contract. Delayed payment of part of the wages for a particular period of time, arising from arbitration awards, grievance procedure regarding particular rates, errors in com putation of pay, or interpretation of wage legislation.

BacktoWork Movement.—An organized effort to reopen a struck plant, participated in by employees opposed to the strike, by certain elements of the community, including at times the poliçe, usually initiated by the management of the plant.

Base Rate.—The amount of pay for a unit of time worked, exclusive of premium pay for overtime or other premium payments. Under incentive wage systems, other than piece rates, may refer to the rate paid for production at “standard.” May refer to the amount guaranteed per hour or other time period.

Board of Inquiry.—A body named by the president in a national emergency dispute under the TaftHartley Act to study the situation and to make recommendations to the president.

Bonus.—Any payment above regular or base wage rates. Includes extra payments for night work, hazardous or extra unpleasant work, regular attendance, and overtime, as well as any annual or regular allotment, such as a Christmas bonus.

Bootleg Wages.—Wages either above prevailing rate or union scale paid in a tight labor market to attract or hold employees or below the prevailing rate or scale which an employer has accepted in order to obtain or hold employment in a slack labor market.

Boycott.—Refusal to buy the products of or to deal with a firm as a means of exerting pressure during a labor dispute.

Caliin Pay.—Amount of pay guaranteed to a worker called in to work on a day on which he otherwise would not have reported if there is no work available or if he is not given a full or half shift of employment. This is also called Reporting Pay.

Casual Workers.—Persons employed irregularly.

Central Labor Union.—A city or county federation of local unions having affiliation with different international unions but with the same parent body, the American Federation of Labor and Congress of industrial Organizations (AFLCIO). Before December 1955 the parent body was the AFL.

Certification.—Designation by a labor board (national or state) of a union as entitled to bargain as exclusive representative of employees in a certain unit.

Closed Shop.—Agreement between an employer and a union under which only members of the union may be employed. Prohibited by the TaftHartley Act except in cases of agreements which were made previously and are stili in effect.

Clothing Allowance.—Allowance granted to those employees who are required to buy special clothing in connection with the performance of their work.

Company Union.—An organization of the employees of a single employer, usually dominated by the employer. Banned by both the Wagner Act and the TaftHartley Act.

Comparable Rate.—A rate paid for work agreed or determined to be comparable within a plant, area, or industry. Such comparisons are used in wage negotiations and wage determinations.

Competitive Wage.—The wage level a company must maintain to compete with other firms in the same labor market for particular types of labor. Also, the wage level required by a company to maintain^ a competitive price position with other firms in its industry.

Conciliation.—Activities of a third party designed to assist contending parties in a labor dispute to reach a voluntary agreement.

Contract.—An agreement defining wages, hours, conditions of employment, and related matters, usually between a union or group of unions and an employer or group of employers.

Contributory Pension Plan.—A pension plan for the benefit of the employee under which the cost is shared by the employer and the employee.

Coolingoff Period.—A period of time during which employees may not strike under the TaftHartley Act and other laws, requiring a definite period of notice before a work stoppage may be enforced.

CostofLiving Adjustment.—An adjustment of wages or salaries in accordance with changes in the cost of living as measured by an appropriate index of the retail prices of goods and services that enter into the consumption of low and moderateincome families.

Craft Union.—A union made up of members doing a specific type of work and possessing definite skills required to do that work. In actual fact, there are few pure craft unions in the United States.

Dead Time.—Time lost by a worker because of a lack of materials, a breakdown of machinery, or other causes beyond his control.

Deadheading Pay.—Special payment to a transportation worker who is required to report for work at a point far removed from his home terminal.

Decertification.—Withdrawal by a labor board of designation of a union as the bargaining representative of a group of employees as a result of a vote by the employees expressing the wish of a majority no longer to be represented by the certified union. The vote, a decertification election, is provided f»r in the TaftHartley Act.

Disability Compensation.—insurance program (in New Jersey, California, Rhode Island, New York, and in railway employment, 1953) to provide for costs of medical care and loss of wages resulting from inability to work resulting from nonwork connected injury or sickness.

Discharge.—Permanent separation of an employee from an employer’s payroll, initiated by the employer for such reasons as incompetence, violation of rules, dishonesty, insubordination, laziness, habitual absenteeism, or inability to meet physical standards.

Discrimination.—Refusal to hire, promote, or admit to union membership because of race, creed, color, sex, or national origin; also, refusal to hire or promote or hiring or promoting as a means of assisting or weakeniııg a union.

Discriminatory Discharge.—Discharge for union activity or because of union membership, an unfair labor practice under both the Wagner Act and the TaftHartley Act.

Dismissal Pay or Compensation.—A specific payment which is given an employee upon permanent termination of employment through no fault of his own.

Downgrading.— Reassignment of workers to tasks with lower skill requirements and lower rates of pay.

Dual Union.—A labor union attempting to recrııit members from among a group of workers already within the established jurisdiction of a union.

Economic Strike.—A strike caıısed by an issue other tlıan an unfair labor practice of an employer.

Emergency Board.—A board appointed under provisions of the Railway Labor Act by the President vyhen a work stoppage is impending on railways or airlines in interstate commerce.

Emergency Dispute.—A labor dispute in which a work stoppage would jeopardize the national health and safety, for which the TaftHartley Act provides special procedures, including establishment of a Board of Inquiry, issuance of an 80day injunction, and voting by employees on the employer’s last offer.

Employee Representation System.—A plan under which representatives of the employees of a company are elected to a joint workermanagement council at which grievances or company policies are discussed.

Employer Association.—An organization of employers in the same industry or line of business or locality, formed for common action in labor matters; occasionally these act as bargaining agent with a union or group of unions.

Entrance Rate.—The hourly wage rate which a worker receives upon being hired into an establishment.

Equal Pay for Equal Work.—Payment of equal compensation to ali employees within an establishment or other unit performing the same kind and amount of work, regardless of race, sex, or other characteristics of the individual workers.

Escalator Clause.—Provision in a union agreement allowing for adjustment of wage rates in accordance with changes in the cost of living as measured by an appropriate index.

Escape Period.—A period of time during which workers may resign from a union in order not to be bound to continue membership obligations under renewal of a union shop, checkoff, or maintenanceofmembership provision.

Exclusive Jurisdiction.—A basic principle of unionism in the United States, that a national or international union will not be challenged in its right to organize and represent ali workers doing certain stated types or work as specified in the charter of the organization.

FactFinding Board.—A board appointed to determine the facts and make recommendations for a settlement of a majör labormanagement dispute.

FairEmployment Practices.—Employment practices, including firing and promotion, which do not violate prohibitions against discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national orign.

Featherbedding.—Requiring that workers be hired to perform services which are not needed, prohibited by the TaftHartley Act.

Federal Labor Union.—A local union composed of workers engaged in occupations not included in the jurisdiction of a national or international union and chartered directly by the AFLCIO (before December 1955 by the AFL).

Fixed Shift.—When a group of workers maintains the same schedule of hours of work week after week.

Free Riders.—A term applied by union members to nonmembers who enjoy without costs the benefits of a contract obtained through the efforts of the duespaying members.

Free Speech.—Guaranteed to employers by the TaftHartley Act; they can express their hostility to unionization but may make no threat of coercion or promise of benefit.^ Coercive expressions are unlawful interference with workers’ rights. Also, the legal basis of picketing.

Fringe Benefit.—A benefit supplemental to wages received by workers, including paid holidays, paid vacations, pensions, health, welfare, and insurance benefits.

Furlough.—A layoff period.

General Strike.—Wide extension of sympathetic strikes throughout virtually ali enterprises of an area in support of primary strike.

Grievance.—Complaint of an employee, a union, or an employer, that a provision of a collective bargaining agreement has been violated.

Grievance Committee.—A body designated by a union to meet regularly or on cali with the management to seek adjustment of accumulated grievances.

Guaranteed Rate.—Rate of pay guaranteed to an incentive worker.

Handicapped Worker Rate.—A lower rate of pay for a worker whose efficiency is impaired because of physical or mental handicaps.

Hiring Hail.—A place where workers gather for assignment to employment. Most common in maritime and yvaterfront employment arrangements, but also found in other lines of work, such as the building trades. Operated on the principle tlıat the man who has waited longest has “first chance at the next assigııment.

Holiday Pay. Payment to workers, usually at regıılar rates, for holidays not worked. For work done on holidays, payments are often provided at premiuın rates.

Homework.—Work done in the homes of workers, usually on a piecework basis, formerly common in the garment industry, where it was also known as the sweatshop system.

Hot Goods or Cargo.—Produced by strikebreakers or workers hostile to a union, which union members resent having to handle or use.

Hourly Rate.—The rate of pay expressed in centsperhour applying to workers paid on a time basis.

Impartial Chairman.—A “third party” designated under an agreement between a union and an employer or employers’ association to arbitrate grievances arising under the contract. Used extensively in the garment industry for setting “prices” on individual operations.

Improvement Factor.—An annual wage increase of a stipulated amount during the life of an agreement, first adopted by the CIO Auto Workers and General Motors Corp. in May 1948, designed to enable the wage earners to share in the benefits resulting from the increased productivity of the entire economy.

incentive Rates.—Wage rate system based on output rather than time worked. May apply to piece rates, rates of pay per unit for production above a predetermined minimum Standard of output, a ratio of managementlabor sharing of savings in labor costs resulting from operation of an incentive system, or to other methods of pay based on individual or group production performance.

individual Rate.—Where no formal wage structure exists, the wages paid are individual rates, and are based, loosely, on the job being done, the training, ability, skill, and bargaining strength of the individual worker.

industrial Union.—A labor organization including ali employees of a plant or industry, no matter what type of work they may do; usually includes ali production and maintenance workers in the unit, regardless of their skill or training, race or sex.

Initiation Fees.—Charges made by a union for the privilege of membership. The TaftHartley Act prohibits excessive or discriminatory initiation fees.

Injunction.—A court order demanding that certain things be done or not be done on the legal ground that otherwise the complaining party would suffer irreparable damages. The issuance of injunctions by federal courts was restricted by the NorrisLaGuardia Act. Violation of an injunction may be punished as contempt of the court issuing the order.

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU).—Association of the national trade union federations of the democratic, nonCommunist nations. The American Federation of Labor, the Congress of industrial Organizations, and the United Mine Workers were among the founding groups. The World Congress of the ICFTU holds biennial conferences.

International Union.—A national union organization with locals in the United States and some other country, usually Canada.

Job Bidding.—Process of posting notices of job vacancies to allow interested employees to apply for such openings.

Job Classification.—Arrangement of the jobs in a plant or industry into a series of categories, each of which is based on progressively higher requirements in terms of skill, experience, training, and similar considerations. Job classification is possible after job analysis and job description.

Job Description.—A written statement listing the elements of a particular job or occupation.

Job Evaluation.—Evaluation or rating of jobs to determine their position in a job hierarchy. May be achieved through assignment of points or use of some other rating..method for essential job requirements such as skill, experience, and responsibility. Used widely in establishing wage rate structures and in eliminating wage inequalities. Applied to jobs, not to the individuals holding the jobs.

Joint Board or Council.—A delegate body composed of representatives of more than one local union of a national or international union in an area formed for collective bargaining purposes.

Joint Rate Setting.—Process of establishing rates of pay jointly by representatives of management and labor. Union participation in rate setting is extensive in the apparel industries; in industries where management retains greater prerogatives över rate setting, the unions have recourse to the grievance machinery to secure adjustment of unsatisfactory rates.

Journeyman Rate.—The rate of pay for a journeyman or fully qualified worker in a skilled craft or trade who has completed an apprenticeship or equivalent training. Typically, the minimum rate for the trade in a particular area, or the union scale.

Jurisdiction. — Exclusive right claimed by a union on the basis of its charter to organize a class of employees without competition from other unions. Term also used regarding the scope of authority of a labor board.

Jurisdictional Dispute.—A dispute between two or more unions över the right to represent workers doing certain types of work över which each claims to have exclusive jurisdictional rights.

Jurisdictional Strike.—A strike to enforce a jurisdictional claim by a union to represent workers doing certain types of work. Prohibited by the TaftHartley Act for work involved in interstate commerce.

Kickback.—The return of a portion of wages earned as the result of a secret agreement enforced by the person who has hired an employee as a condition of his employment or continued employment, thereby evading payment of full union scales or legal minimum rates. Prohibited by federal law in 1934 for workers on publicly financed construction projects.

Labor Grade.—One of a series of rate steps (single rate or rate ranges) in the wage rate structure of an establishment. Labor grades are an outcome usually of some form of job evaluation, by which occupations of approximately equal “value” or “worth” fail into the same grade.

LaborManagement Relations Act of 1947.—The basic federal law regulating labor relations of enterprises engaged in interstate commerce (except transportation). Popularly known as the TaftHartley Labor Act. Passed över the president’s veto on June 23, 1947.

Labor Relations Board.—May refer either to the national or a state board named to administer a labor relations law.

Labor Turnover.—As originally used the term meant the act of a master transferring an apprentice to another master to complete his time; at present, it connotes resignations and dismissals of wage or salaryearners. The employer usually computes his turnover on an annual percentage basis; a 50 per cent turnover for a year means that dismissals and/or replacements are equal to half the normal number of persons on the payroll.

Layoff.—Temporary termination of employment initiated by the employer without p re j udice to the worker. For statistical purposes, lasting or expected to last more than seven consecutive calendar days without pay.

Learner.—A worker who receives informal training through actual performance on the job under supervision.

Learner Rate.—The rate of pay or schedule of rates applicable to workers inexperienced in the job for which they are employed during their training period.

Local Union.—Group of organized workers having a charter from a national or international union. Usually, the local’s membership is restricted to employees in a single plant or area.

Lockout.—A work stoppage initiated by management as a means of forcing employees to accept the terms _ offered by an employer.

MaintenanceofMembership.—A form of union security widely adopted during World War II, under which employees who were union members or who joined the union must continue so during the life of the contract as a condition of employment, advanced_ as a compromise formula when a union was demanding a union shop or closed shop and the employer was _ unwilling to concede that much union security.

Majority Rule.—A basic principle in American collective bargaining, that a union designated by a majority of the employees in a bargaining unit is the exclusive bargaining representative for ali of the employees in the unit.

Makeup Pay.—Allowances given by employers to piecerate workers to make up differences between actual piecerate earnings and earnings at guaranteed “rates or statutory minimum wage rates.

Mediation.—Offer by a disinterested third party of good offices to the parties in a labor dispute; the entrance of a third party into a labor dispute in an effort to effect a settlement. The mediator makes recommendations and assists the disputant parties in reaching a settlement.

Mediation Service.—The Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS), reformed as an independent agency by the TaftHartley Act, with defined duties in ali labor disputes afîecting interstate commerce (except interstate transportation). its predecessor, the United States Conciliation Service, was a bureau in the United States Department of Labor.

M erit increase.—An increase in the wage rate of an individual worker on the basis of performance or service. May be administered at discretion of the employer, according to provisions of agreements for automatic increases within a rate range, or as a result pf periodic performance reviews.

Minimum Job Rate.—The minimum wage rate for experienced workers on a given job.

Minimum Plant Rate.—The minimum rate of pay for experienced workers in the lowestpaid job in an establishment.

Minimum Wage.—Rates of wages, established legally or through collective bargaining, below which workers cannot be employed.

Miscellaneous Separations.—Includes termination of employment because of permanent disability, death, retirement on a company pension, or entrance into the armed forces for service of more than 30 days; used in statistical calculation of labor turnover.

MultipleEmployer Unit.—A bargaining unit made up of the production and maintenance workers employed by more than one employer,. usually in the same industry and same general area.

National Labor Relations Act.—Popularly known as the Wagner Act, passed July 5, 1935, and in effect until June 23, 1947, when, with amendments, it was included in the TaftHartley Act.

National Labor Relations Board. Established by the Wagner Act and continued. with amended authority and organizational structure, by the TaftHartley Act, to enforce the provisions of these laws governing labormanagement relations of firms engaged in interstate commerce, except transportation.

National Mediation Board. Federal agency established by the Railway Labor Act charged with mediating labor disputes on the railways and airlines and with conducting representation elections in this area.

Noncontributory Pension Plan.—A pension plan for the benefit of the employee under which the entire cost is borne by the employer.

Nonproduction Bonus.—A bonus that depends on factors other than the output of an individual worker or of a group of workers.

NoRaiding Agreement.—An agreement between two or more unions (which experience has shown to be competing) that they will not seek to recruit members from among already established and certified locals of othcr unions which are parties to the agree ment.

NorrisLaGuardia Act.—Federal antiinjunction legislation adopted March 23, 1932.

Occupational Rate.—Wage rates (single or ranges) that are designated for particular occupations in an establishment, area, or industry.

Open Shop.—A plant where employees are said to be free to join or not to join a labor union as a condition of their employment; the opposite to the closed shop, where only members of a union may be eraployed. Unionists charge that union membership or activity is the cause of the discharge of workers from open shops.

Outside Union.—A nationally affiliated union seeking to organize the workers in an unorganized plant or one in which the employees belong to a plant union.

Overtime.—Time worked beyond a Standard workday or workweek for which premium wage rates are customarily paid; may also refer to the wages paid for overtime work.

Overtime Premium Pay.—Payment of wages at premium rate for time worked beyond the regular hours of employment established by union agreement, employer or industry practice, or by law. Typically, “time and a half” is paid for overtime work.

Pace Setter.—A worker who is better than average on a particular job, and whose production is used by the employer as a standard for measuring the amcAmt of work which can be done by employees in a given period of time.

Package.—A term used to describe a combination of benefits received by workers as a result of collective bargaining.

Pattern Settlement.—A key wage settlement setting the pattern for other wage adjustments within an industry or labor market.

Payment by Result.—Any method of wage payment where the amoıınt of the wa«e depends upon the amount of oııtpııt.

Penalty Rate.—An extra rate which is paid for hazardous job, lateshift work, Sunday and holiday work, and for overtime.

Perquisite.—Furııislıings by employers of food, lodgings, and other payments in kind to workers in addition to moııetary coıııpensation.

Picketing.—Condııcted usually by members of a union to give public notice of the fact of a labor dispııte and to present the union’s side of the argument. Peaceful picketing is legally regarded as an exercise of the right of free speech.

Piece Rate. The predetermined amount paid to a worker for each unit prodııced under an incentive wage system. May be based on individual or group output.

Piece Work.—A method of wage payment based on ıınits of output.

Plant Union.—An organization of the workers of a single plant, not affiliated with other workers’ organizatioııs.

PortaltoPortal Pay.—Payments made for time spent on company premises in getting to and from the working place, ıuost notably in ıuining.

Preferential Shop.—A form of union security in which the employer agrees to give certain preference to union members in hiring, or that a certain percentage of the work force will be union members throughout the duration of the agreement.

Premium Rate.—Extra rate paid for overtime, work on late shifts, holiday or Sunday work, or work in particularly dangerous or unpleasant occupations. Also used in connection with extra rates paid to employees having exceptional ability or skill.

Prevailing Rate.—Typically the predominant or more common wage rate paid to a group of workers, usually with reference to specific occupations in an industry or labor market area. In making legal determinations, due to a variety of interpretations of the term, it is necessary to have a specific mention of the area, occupation, industry rate, and type of quantitative measure involved to have definite meaning.

Probationary Rate.—Rate of pay for an experienced and otherwise qualified worker during the initial period of his employment on a new job or in a new plant. May be lower than the minimum for the job or may be the minimum rate.

Production Bonus.—A bonus payment directly related to the output of an individual worker or a group of workers.

Quit.—Termination of employment initiated by employee for such reasons as acceptance of another job with another employer, dissatisfaction, return to school, marriage, maternity, ili health, or voluntary retirement where no pension is available.

Racketeer.—A union official who extorts money from employers through threatening to cause a strike or to organize a group of unorganized workers.

Rate Cutting.Reduction by employers of established incentive or time rates in the absence of changes affecting job content.

Rate Range.—A range of wage rates for the same job, with specific rates for individual workers within the range determined by merit, length of service, or a combination of various concepts of merit and length of service. Automatic progression from the minimum to the maximum after specified periods of service is common.

Rate Setting.—The process of establishing wage rates through joint unionmanagement action or by management alone. May involve job evaluation and time and motion study. May also involve comparison with rates for similar work in the industry or in the local labor market.

Real Wages.—The goods and services that can be purchased with money wages; an expression of the purchasing power of money wages. Över periods of time, changes in real wages are obtained by dividing indexes of money wages by an appropriate index of consumer prices.

Recognition.—Acceptance by an employer of a union as the bargaining representative for a group of workers in his employ.

Registration.—Filing of certain required information prescribed by the TaftHartley Act by a union with the United States Department of Labor. Failııre to s o file disqualifies a union from receiving National Labor Relations Board services.

Regular Rate.—The rate of pay received by a worker for ali hours of work performed at straighttime rates.

Representation Election.—Voting by employees for the purpose of selecting a bargaining representative, usually conducted by a labor board.

Retroactive Pay.A wage increase effective to an agreedupon date prior to the date of the agreement. Delayed payment of part of the wages for a particular period, resulting from a retroactive application of wage increases arising from wage negotiations. In a unique award in the textile industry in 1953, an arbitrator ruled that a retroactive wage reduction was in order.

RighttoWork Law.—Legislation passed by a number of states making union security agreements illegal by forbidding contracts which make employment conditional upon membership or nonmembership in a union.

Rotating Shift.—System of rotating the crews where two or more shifts are worked in an establishment, to distribute day and night work on an equal hasis among the various workers.

Round of Wage increases. A term widely used since \Vorld War II to describe broad wage movements affecting large segments of the econonıy. Actually these wage movements exhibited great internal diversity and were in no sense uniform,_ except that they came at aboııt the same period of time.

Royalty.—Payments to the union healtlı and welfare funds of the mine workers’ and of the musicians’ union, based on the number of tous of coal mined or phonograph records prodııced. Also, a basis for payment of composers, singers. and aııthors, as a percentage of the sales of sheet music, records, and books.

Runaway Rate. A piece rate or incentive rate, which, because of changed technology or faulty rate setting, results in earnings which are out of line with earnings of workers doing jobs with similar requirements in the same area or industry.

Runaway Shop.—A business removed from where it has been operating in order to avoid bargaining with a union.

Runoff Election.—A second employee representation election conducted by a labor board between two alternative choices after a first election has failed to show a majority preference among three or more alternatives.

Salary Rate.—For workers hired on a weekly, monthly, or annual basis, the rate of pay is normally expressed in terms of dollars per week, month, or year, although they may be paid monthly, semimonthly, or more often.

Scab.—Term of opprobrium applied by strikers to nonstriking fellow employees.

Secondary Boycott.—Refusal to deal with or buy goods or services from a firra which is a customer or supplier of an employer with whom the union has a dispute, thereby attempting to bring economic pressure to bear on the employer involved in the primary dispute.

Secondary Strike.—A strike against an employer in which a union attempts to force that employer to use pressure upon another employer who is being struck by the union, to induce the other employer to accede to the union’s demands.

Selective Placement.—Employment placement process devised to match productive capabilities of handicapped workers with requirements of jobs to achieve the fullest possible utilization of their potential skills.

Seniority.—Length of service of an employee with an employer (or in a department or other subdivision), serving as the basis of rights accorded, as in the order of layoff and of rehiring, or in preference for promotions if other factors are equal.

Separations.—Terminations of employment initiated either by the employer or the employee, one of the two majör trends in labor turnover. Includes quits, dıscharges, layoffs, and miscellaneous separations (including military).

Severance Pay.—A cash allowance made to a worker leaving a payroll, who has not qualified for a pension.

SharetheWork.—Limiting the number of hours worked by each employee instead of laying ofî employees during periods of slackened business.

Shift.—A term applied to a work period when two or more groups of workers are employed at different hours during the operating time of an establishment. In some industries, the terms “tricks” or “tours” are used instead of “shifts.”

Shop Steward.—Union official named by a department or other small number of employees to represent them in grievance cases with the foreman or supervisor.

Shutdown.—Temporary closing of a shop or plant due to slackened business or changing equipment for the production of new models or of new products.

Single Rate.—A rate of pay which is the same for ali workers on the same job or in the same job clfcssification, and under wlıich the individual worker on a job receives the same rate during the entire time that he is holding the job.

SitDown Strike.—Work stoppage in which the strikers stayed inside the plant but refused to work. Used in a number of dramatic situations, 19351937, but declared illegal in the Fan Steel decision; reported to have been used by some East German workers in mid1953.

SlowDown.—Concerted restriction of speed of work to eııforce demands made upon an employer. In transportation, this may take the form of a “Rule Book Strike” in which ali tlıe rııles “in the book” are observed literally, thereby slowing train schedules.

Special Permit Rate. A wage rate paid to a union worker who comes from another city and is employed under a special permit because of local labor shortages, and lısually tlıe same rate as paid to a permanent worker; in tlıe brewery industry, however, during the peak summer season, this rate is usually lower tlıan that paid to “regular” union brewery workers.

Speedup. Tncreasing the pace of operations, usually through accelerating the speed of machines which employees mııst attend; usually this is done without tlıe conscııt of the workers.

Spendable Earnings.—The money earnings of workers less varioııs amoıınts deducted for taxes and other purposes from the payroll; broadly equated to “takelıoıııe pay.”

Split Shift.—Daily working time that is not continuous, but distinctively split iııto two or more working periods. This is typical in local transportation (peak or rttsh periods) and in food dispensing.

Standard Rate.—A basic rate of pay established for an occupation in a plant, industry, or community through collective bargaining, company regulation, or by law.

Stretchout.—Increasing the work quota of employees through assigning a larger number of operations to be performed or a larger number of machines to be attended by each employee.

Strike.—Concerted stoppage of work by a group of employees used as a means of exerting economic pressure on their employer in order to win recognition or acceptance of terms advanced by the employees. Statistically, a stoppage must be for one shift or more or one day or more to be counted as a strike.

Strikebreaker.—A person engaged in the “trade” of taking employment in struck plants, either as a “production worker” or as a guard. This activity was sharply curbed by the passage of a federal law prohibiting the transportation of strikebreakers in interstate commerce and by tightening state laws for licensing agencies which furnished strikebreakers.

Subminimum Rate.—A wage rate below the minimum established for an occupation, establishment, industry, or area by union agreement, law, or policy, paid to learners, substandard, superannuated, probationary, or special permit workers.

Submission.—A statement of the issues _ of a dispute agreed upon by the parties which furnishes the basis of an arbitration.

Subsistence Allowance.—A payment to a worker for expenses covering meals, lodging, and transportation while in a travel status for his employer.

Substandard Rate.—A rate of pay below the prevailing or standard level for a worker whose efficiency is impaired because of physical or mental handicaps.

Süper Seniority.—Granted in certain contracts to union shop stewards, in order that the employees will have union representation for grievances so long as there are any workers in their department.

Superannuated Rate.—A rate of pay below the prevailing level for a worker above a certain age. Frequently such rates are allowed in union agreements, some of which set a definite proportion of superannuated workers who are to be employed under the terms of the contract.

Supervisor.—An employee who has the right to hire and fire other employees or who can effectively recommend that they be hired or fired. Although foremen and other supervisors may organize into their own unions and attempt to win bargaining rights, the TaftHartley Act gives supervisors no protection in their efforts to secure collective bargaining.

Swing Shift.—An extra shift of workers required in establishments where continuous or 7day operations are scheduled, to provide other crews with days ofî, rotating among ali the other shifts.

Sympathetic Strike.—A strike called in support of another strike.

Target.—A rate set, in piecerate systems, with the objectives of making it possible for a worker to earn an agreedon percentage above the base rate.

Temporary Rate.—A wage rate set tentatively on new work; also called “experimental” or “trial” rates.

Time Study.—Engineering analyses of time required to ‘ perform a job.

Trainee.—Term applied to workers who receive formal training for occupations requiring a limited degree of skill; the training may include some classroom work.

Travel Time.—Time spent by a worker traveling to and from a designated point and the place of work; includes portaltoportal in mining, deadheading on the railroads, and outoftown work performed by bııilding tradesmen, mechanics, musicians, ete.

Unauthorized Strike.—A strike by employees against the advice or without the approval or sanetion of their union, as a wildcat strike.

Unfair Labor Practice.—A practice forbidden under the federal or a state labor relations act. Under the Wagner Act, these were a list of preseribed activities of employers; under the TaftHartley Act, the list was broadened to include a series of activities of labor organi zati ons as well.

Unfair List (or “WeDoNotPatronize” List).—The names of. employers voted by a labor body to be “unfair to organized labor” because of their refusal to recognize a union or drawnotıt refusal to reach an agreement with a union. During 1952, the Stıpreme Court of the United States confirmed an award of damages to an employer so listed by a central labor union.

Union Insignia.Buttons, badges, or other insignia slıowing tlıat the wearer is a union member, or a “paidııp” member. The right to wear these as an organizational tactı’c while on the job has been guaranteed by the NLRB.

Union Label.—An identifying mark, registered with a dulyconstituted autlıority, placed on goods to slıow that they were produced by union labor or in a shop which deals with organized labor and has the right to use the union label. Most union me .bers pledge to give preference in their buying to products bearing the union label.

Union Rate.—An hourly wage rate, usually a single rate for an occupation or trade, established by agreement reached through collective bargaining. Usually the minimum rate that may be paid to qualified persons in the job; there are usually no restrictions preventing an employer from paying above the union scale.

Union Shop.—The strongest form of union security permitted under the TaftHartley Act. Under this, while the employer is not restricted as to who may be hired, ali employees must become members of the union within a specified period of time and continue to be members in good standing. illegal in states which have adopted “RighttoWork” laws.

Union Shop Card.—Registered certificate issued by unions in the service trades indicating that the employer deals with the union and that his business is thereby deserving of the patronage of other union members.

Unit.—The “unit appropriate for collective bargaining,” consisting of alî employees entitled to select a single agency to represent them for collective bargaining.

Upgrading.—The process of a morerapidthannormal adyancement of workers to jobs having greater skill requirements and commanding higher rates of pay. Characteristic of manpower utilization during a “tight labor market” such as prevailed during the latter years of World War II; the converse of downgrading.

Vacation Pay.—Payment for a period of time received by workers for vacation purposes. During busy times or in a tight labor market, workers may be given the option of accepting vacation pay in lieu of time off.

Wage Advance Plan.—Advancing of wages in short workweeks under plans obligating employers to maintain weekly wages up to a specified minimum level, as under an Annual Wage or Employment Guarantee.

Wage and Salary Administration.—The managing and supervision of the wage structure of an employer. Involves the application of wage and salary adjustments according to established policies, the analysis of such data as cost of living, prices, wage and salary surveys which have a direct bearing on the wage structure and on wage negotiations. May also involve the establishment of new rates through job evaluation, job analysis, and time studies.

Wage Assignment.—A voluntary transfer by a worker of some of his earned wages to another party or parties. May be for payment of purchased goods or debts, savings bonds, charitable donations, and union dues and assessments.

Wage Differentials.—Patterns of differences in prevailing wage levels have been discovered, based on a variety of factors,_ including differentials between skills and occupations, between regions, between sexes, between shifts, between organized and unorganized workers, between cities of various sizes, between industries, between areas, and between large, medium, and smallsized labor forces employed by single establishments.

Wage Inequalities.—An unjust disparity between wage rates of workers whose duties and responsibilities are similar or identical.

Wage Inequities.—An unjust relationship between the wage rates of workers or of job classifications.

Wage Leadership.—The influence exercised by the wage settlements reached by a large firm or group of firms on other settlements in an industry or labor market.

Wage Level.—The level of wages received by workers in an occupation, establishment, industry, or area, generally indicated by average wage rates.

Wage Policy.—A formalized practice of an establishment, association of employers, or industry relating to the elements of wages, such as wage rate scales, shift differentials, overtime provisions, nonproduction bonuses, automatic increments, paid holidays, paid vacations, pensions, and insurance benefits.

Wage Rate.—The monetary compensation for a given unit of time or effort by which a worker’s pay is calculated.

Wage Reopening.—A provision in a union agreement permitting the question of^ wages to be opened for negotiation before the expiration of the balance of the agreement. Found usually in “longterm” contracts, but not in those in which automatic escalation is a provision.

W age Review.—A periodic review of the performance of workers to determine or select those who deserve merit increases or advancemeııt to higher paying jobs.

W age Structure.—The sum total of the various elements and considerations that characterize a specific wage rate schedule in an establishment, industry, area, or the country as a whole.

W age Survey.—A wage study based on the collection, tabulation, and analysis of original data. Wage surveys are of many types, and the kinds of data collected depend upon the uses to which the surveys are put.

Wagner Act.—The popular designation of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, which was sponsored by the late Senatör Robert F. Wagner of New York. Welfare Plan.—A feature of a collectivebargaining contract whereby specific benefits, such as insurance, pensions, medical care, and other matters are provided for employees. Employer contributions to funds for these purposes are regulated by the TaftHartley Act. Formerly such plans might be set up by employers or by unions; presently, if an employer elects to alter a previously existing plan, the alterations are a legitimate subject for collective bargaining.

Wildcat Strike.—A work stoppage which is not authorized or sanctioned by a union, usually to force action on accumulated grievances. Frequently a phenomena in certain plants during the period before contract negotiations “to show the boss the workers mean business.” Usually a stoppage of short durati’on. Workmen’s Compensation.—insurance programs, under state auspices or control except for federal employees and certain maritime workers, to provide financial provision for medical care and loss of wages and earning power resulting from industrial accidents and from sickness resulting from employment.

World Federation of Trade Unions.—Federation of trade unions throughout the entire world formed at the end of World War II. As a result of the increasingly obvious domination of the_ WFTU by the unions of Russia and the satellite nations, the unions of the democratic nations withdrew and formed the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. The AFL refused to join the World Federation of Trade Unions. Yellowdog Contract.—An agreement once used by some employers as a prerequisite for employment wherein the prospective employee promised to refrain from joining a union while working for that employer; restricted by the NorrisLaGuardia Act, the courts have held that such contracts are not binding, since an individual cannot alienate his own right to join a union.

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